[PATCH v3 2/5] Documentation: common clk API

Saravana Kannan skannan at codeaurora.org
Wed Nov 23 02:03:01 UTC 2011


On 11/21/2011 05:40 PM, Mike Turquette wrote:
> Provide documentation for the common clk structures and APIs.  This code
> can be found in drivers/clk/ and include/linux/clk.h.
>
> Signed-off-by: Mike Turquette<mturquette at linaro.org>
> ---
>   Documentation/clk.txt |  312 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>   1 files changed, 312 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
>   create mode 100644 Documentation/clk.txt
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/clk.txt b/Documentation/clk.txt
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..ef4333d
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/clk.txt
> @@ -0,0 +1,312 @@
> +		The Common Clk Framework
> +		Mike Turquette<mturquette at ti.com>
> +
> +	Part 1 - common data structures and API
> +
> +The common clk framework is a combination of a common definition of
> +struct clk which can be used across most platforms as well as a set of
> +driver-facing APIs which operate on those clks.  Platforms can enable it
> +by selecting CONFIG_GENERIC_CLK.
> +
> +Below is the common struct clk definition from include/linux.clk.h.  It

Typo

> +is modified slightly for brevity:
> +
> +struct clk {
> +	const char              *name;
> +	const struct clk_hw_ops *ops;

No strong opinion, but can we call this clk_ops for brevity?

> +	struct clk              *parent;
> +	unsigned long           rate;
> +	unsigned long           flags;
> +	unsigned int            enable_count;
> +	unsigned int            prepare_count;
> +	struct hlist_head       children;
> +	struct hlist_node       child_node;
> +};
> +
> +The .name, .parent and .children members make up the core of the clk
> +tree topology which can be visualized by enabling
> +CONFIG_COMMON_CLK_SYSFS.  The ops member points to an instance of struct
> +clk_hw_ops:
> +
> +	struct clk_hw_ops {
> +		int             (*prepare)(struct clk *clk);
> +		void            (*unprepare)(struct clk *clk);
> +		int             (*enable)(struct clk *clk);
> +		void            (*disable)(struct clk *clk);
> +		unsigned long   (*recalc_rate)(struct clk *clk);
> +		long            (*round_rate)(struct clk *clk, unsigned long,
> +				unsigned long *);
> +		int             (*set_parent)(struct clk *clk, struct clk *);
> +		struct clk *    (*get_parent)(struct clk *clk);
> +		int             (*set_rate)(struct clk *clk, unsigned long);
> +	};
> +
> +These callbacks correspond to the clk API that has existed in
> +include/linux/clk.h for a while.  Below is a quick summary of the
> +operations in that header, as implemented in drivers/clk/clk.c.  These
> +comprise the driver-facing API:
> +
> +clk_prepare - does everything needed to get a clock ready to generate a
> +proper signal which may include ungating the clk and actually generating
> +that signal.  clk_prepare MUST be called before clk_enable.  This call
> +holds the global prepare_mutex, which also prevents clk rates and
> +topology from changing while held.  This API is meant to be the "slow"
> +part of a clk enable sequence, if applicable.  This function must not be
> +called in an interrupt context.

in an atomic context?

> +
> +clk_unprepare - the opposite of clk_prepare: does everything needed to
> +make a clk no longer ready to generate a proper signal, which may
> +include gating an active clk.  clk_disable must be called before
> +clk_unprepare.  All of the same rules for clk_prepare apply.
> +
> +clk_enable - ungate a clock and immediately start generating a valid clk
> +signal.  This is the "fast" part of a clk enable sequence, and maybe the
> +only functional part of that sequence.  Regardless clk_prepare must be
> +called BEFORE clk_enable.  The enable_spinlock is held across this call,
> +which means that clk_enable must not sleep.
> +
> +clk_disable - the opposite of clk_enable: gates a clock immediately.
> +clk_disable must be called before calling clk_unprepare.  All of the
> +same rules for clk_enable apply.
> +
> +clk_get_rate - Returns the cached rate for the clk.  Does NOT query the
> +hardware state.  No lock is held.

I wrote the stuff below and then realized that this ops is not really 
present in the code. Looks like stale doc. Can you please remove this? 
But I think the comments below do hold true for the actual 
clk_set_rate()/get_rate() implementation. I will try to repeat this as 
part of the actual code review.

I will be looking into the other patches in order, so, forgive me if I'm 
asking a question that has an obvious answer in the remaining patches.

I think a lock needs to be taken for this call too. What prevents a 
clock set rate from getting called and modifying the cached rate 
variable while it's bring read. I don't think we should have a common 
code assume that read/write of longs are atomic.

> +
> +clk_get_parent - Returns the cached parent for the clk.  Does NOT query
> +the hardware state.  No lock is held.

Same question as above. Can we assume a read of a pointer variable is 
atomic? I'm not sure. I think this needs locking too.

> +
> +clk_set_rate - Attempts to change the clk rate to the one specified.
> +Depending on a variety of common flags it may fail to maintain system
> +stability or result in a variety of other clk rates changing.

I'm not sure if this is intentional or if it's a mistake in phrasing it. 
IMHO, the rates of other clocks that are actually made available to 
device drivers should not be changed. This call might trigger rate 
changes inside the tree to accommodate the request from various 
children, but should not affect the rate of the leaf nodes.

Can you please clarify the intention and/or the wording?

> Holds the
> +same prepare_mutex held by clk_prepare/clk_unprepare and clk_set_parent.
> +
> +clk_set_parent - Switches the input source for a clk.  This only applies
> +to mux clks with multiple parents.  Holds the same prepare_mutex held by
> +clk_prepare/clk_unprepare and clk_set_rate.
> +
> +	Part 2 - hardware clk implementations
> +
> +The strength of the common struct clk comes from its .ops pointer and
> +the ability for platform and driver code to wrap the struct clk instance
> +with hardware-specific data which the operations in the .ops pointer
> +have knowledge of.  To illustrate consider the simple gateable clk
> +implementation in drivers/clk/clk-basic.c:
> +
> +struct clk_hw_gate {
> +	struct clk      clk;
> +	struct clk      *fixed_parent;
> +	void __iomem    *reg;
> +	u8              bit_idx;
> +};

This is exactly how we do it in the MSM code for various clock types. 
So, this is awesome. Will make my life easier. I can't wait to get the 
MSM clock code upstream without pissing off Linus.

> +
> +struct clk_hw_gate contains the clk as well as hardware-specific
> +knowledge about which register and bit controls this clk's gating.  The
> +fixed-parent member is also there as a way to initialize the topology.
> +
> +Let's walk through enabling this clk from driver code:
> +
> +	struct clk *clk;
> +	clk = clk_get(NULL, "my_gateable_clk");
> +
> +	clk_prepare(clk);
> +	clk_enable(clk);
> +
> +Note that clk_prepare MUST be called before clk_enable even if
> +clk_prepare does nothing (which in this case is true).
> +
> +The call graph for clk_enable is very simple:
> +
> +clk_enable(clk);
> +	clk->enable(clk);
> +			clk_hw_gate_enable_set(clk);
> +				clk_hw_gate_set_bit(clk);
> +
> +And the definition of clk_hw_gate_set_bit:
> +
> +static void clk_hw_gate_set_bit(struct clk *clk)
> +{
> +	struct clk_hw_gate *gate = to_clk_hw_gate(clk);
> +	u32 reg;
> +
> +	reg = __raw_readl(gate->reg);
> +	reg |= BIT(gate->bit_idx);
> +	__raw_writel(reg, gate->reg);
> +}
> +
> +Note that in the final call to clk_hw_gate_set_bit there is use of
> +to_clk_hw_gate, which is defined as:
> +
> +#define to_clk_hw_gate(ck) container_of(ck, struct clk_hw_gate, clk)
> +
> +This simple abstration is what allows the common clk framework to scale
> +across many platforms.  The struct clk definition remains the same while
> +the hardware operations in the .ops pointer know the details of the clk
> +hardware.  A little pointer arithmetic to get to the data is all that
> +the ops need.

Glad you went with this approach and killed clk_hw after our discussion.

> +
> +	Part 3 - Supporting your own clk hardware
> +
> +To construct a clk hardware structure for your platform you simply need
> +to define the following:
> +
> +struct clk_hw_your_clk {
> +	struct clk;
> +	unsigned long some_data;
> +	struct your_struct *some_more_data;
> +};
> +
> +To take advantage of your data you'll need to support valid operations
> +for your clk:
> +
> +struct clk_hw_ops clk_hw_ops_your_clk {
> +	.enable		=&clk_hw_your_clk_enable;
> +	.disable	=&clk_hw_your_clk_disable;
> +};
> +
> +Implement the above functions using container_of:
> +
> +int clk_hw_your_clk_enable(struct clk *clk)
> +{
> +	struct clk_hw_your_clk *yclk;
> +
> +	yclk = container_of(clk, struct clk_hw_your_clk, clk);
> +
> +	magic(yclk);
> +};
> +
> +If you are statically allocating all of your clk_hw_your_clk instances
> +then you will still need to initialize some stuff in struct clk with the
> +clk_init function from include/linux/clk.h:
> +
> +clk_init(&yclk->clk);
> +
> +If you are dynamically creating clks or using device tree then you might
> +want a hardware-specific register function:
> +
> +int clk_hw_your_clk_register(const char *name, unsigned long flags,
> +		unsigned long some_data,
> +		struct your_struct *some_more_data)
> +{
> +	struct clk_hw_your_clk *yclk;
> +
> +	yclk = kmalloc(sizeof(struct clk_hw_your_clk), GFP_KERNEL);
> +
> +	yclk->some_data = some_data;
> +	yclk->some_more_data = some_more_data;
> +
> +	yclk->clk.name = name;
> +	yclk->clk.flags = flags;
> +
> +	clk_init(&yclk->clk);
> +
> +	return 0;
> +}
> +
> +	Part 4 - clk_set_rate
> +
> +clk_set_rate deserves a special mention because it is more complex than
> +the other operations.  There are three key concepts to the common
> +clk_set_rate implementation:
> +
> +1) recursively traversing up the clk tree and changing clk rates, one
> +parent at a time, if each clk allows it
> +2) failing to change rate if the clk is enabled and must only change
> +rates while disabled

Is this really true? Based on a quick glance at the other patches, it 
doesn't look it disallows set rate if the clock is enabled. Which is 
correct, because clock rates can be change while they are enabled (I'm 
referring to leaf clocks) as long as the hardware supports doing it 
correctly. So, this needs rewording? I'm guessing you are trying to say 
that you can't change the parent rate if it has multiple enabled child 
clocks running off of it and one of them wants to cause a parent rate 
change? I'm not sure if even that should be enforced in the common code 
-- doesn't look like you do either.

> +2) using clk rate change notifiers to allow devices to handle dynamic
Must be 3)
> +rate changes for clks which do support changing rates while enabled

Again, I guess this applies to the other clock. Not the one for which 
clk_set_rate() is being called.

> +
> +For the simple, non-recursive case the call graph looks like:
> +
> +clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
> +	__clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
> +		clk->round_rate(clk, rate *parent_rate);
> +		clk->set_rate(clk, rate);
> +
> +You might be wondering what that third paramater in .round_rate is.  If
> +a clk supports the CLK_PARENT_SET_RATE flag then that enables it's
> +hardware-specific .round_rate function to provide a new rate that the
> +parent should transition to.  For example, imagine a rate-adjustable clk
> +A that is the parent of clk B, which has a fixed divider of 2.
> +
> +	clk A	(rate = 10MHz) (possible rates = 5MHz, 10MHz, 20MHz)
> +	  |
> +	  |
> +	  |
> +	clk B	(rate = 5MHz) (fixed divider of 2)
> +
> +In the above scenario clk B will always have half the rate of clk A.  If
> +clk B is to generate a 10MHz clk then clk A must generate 20MHz in turn.
> +The driver writer could hack in knowledge of clk A, but in reality clk B
> +drives the devices operation and the driver shouldn't know the details
> +of the clk tree topology.  In this case it would be nice for clk B to
> +propagate it's request up to clk A.
> +
> +Here the call graph for our above example:
> +
> +clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
> +	__clk_set_rate(clk, rate);
> +		clk->round_rate(clk, rate *parent_rate);
> +		clk->set_rate(clk, rate);
> +		__clk_set_rate(clk->parent, parent_rate);
> +			clk->round_rate(clk, rate *parent_rate);
> +			clk->set_rate(clk, rate);
> +
> +Note that the burden of figuring out whether to recurse upwards falls on
> +the hardware-specific .round_rate function.  The common clk framework
> +does not have the context to make such complicated decisions in a
> +generic way for all platforms.
> +
> +Another caveat is that child clks might run at weird intermediate
> +frequencies during a complex upwards propagation, as illustrated below:
> +
> +	clk A  (pll 100MHz - 300MHz)	(currently locked at 200MHz)
> +	  |
> +	  |
> +	  |
> +	clk B  (divide by 1 or 2)	(currently divide by 2, 100MHz)
> +	  |
> +	  |
> +	  |
> +	clk C  (divide by 1 or 2)	(currently divide by 1, 100MHz)
> +
> +The call graph below, with some bracketed annotations, describes how
> +this might work with some clever .round_rate callbacks when trying to
> +set clk C to run at 26MHz:
> +
> +clk_set_rate(C, 26MHz);
> +	__clk_set_rate(C, 26MHz);
> +		clk->round_rate(C, 26MHz, *parent_rate);
> +		[ round_rate returns 50MHz ]
> +		[&parent_rate is 52MHz ]
> +		clk->set_rate(C, 50Mhz);
> +		[ clk C is set to 50MHz, which sets divider to 2 ]
> +		__clk_set_rate(clk->parent, parent_rate);
> +			clk->round_rate(B, 52MHz, *parent_rate);
> +			[ round_rate returns 100MHz ]
> +			[&parent_rate is 104MHz ]
> +			clk->set_rate(B, 100MHz);
> +			[ clk B stays at 100MHz, divider stays at 2 ]
> +			__clk_set_rate(clk->parent, parent_rate);
> +				[ round_rate returns 104MHz ]
> +				[&parent_rate is ignored ]
> +				clk->set_rate(A, 104MHz);
> +				[ clk A is set to 104MHz]
> +

I will come back to this topic later on. I like the idea of propagating 
the needs to the parent, but not sure if the current implementation will 
work for all types of clock trees/set rates even though the HW might 
actually allow it to be done right.

> +The end result is that clk C runs at 26MHz.  Each .set_rate callback
> +actually sets the intermediate rate, which nicely reflects reality.
> +Once clk rate change notifiers are supported then it is expected that
> +PRECHANGE notifiers will "stack" in situations with recursive
> +clk_set_rate calls.
> +
> +Thus a driver X which subcribes to rate-change notifers for clk C would
> +have received 2 PRECHANGE notifiers in the above example.  The first
> +would have notified the driver that clk C was changing from 100MHz to
> +50MHz.  The second PRECHANGE notifier would have told driver X that clk
> +C had changed from 50MHz to 26MHz.  There would not be a PRECHANGE
> +notifier corresponding to __clk_set_rate(B, 50MHz) since B is already
> +running at that rate and the notification would be unnecessary.
> +
> +clk_set_rate is written in such a way that POSTCHANGE notifiers and
> +ABORTCHANGE notifiers will only be sent once.  Each will start
> +propagation from the highest point in the tree which was affected by the
> +operation.

Thanks,
Saravana

-- 
Sent by an employee of the Qualcomm Innovation Center, Inc.
The Qualcomm Innovation Center, Inc. is a member of the Code Aurora Forum.



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